In recent years, the India-Bangladesh land boundary agreement of 2015 has been a significant topic for students and professionals alike preparing for the UPSC examination. The agreement has brought about a major shift in the relationship between the two neighboring countries by resolving contentious border issues.

The India-Bangladesh land boundary agreement of 2015 was signed by the then Indian Prime Minister, Dr. Manmohan Singh, and his Bangladeshi counterpart, Sheikh Hasina. The agreement marked the end of a long-standing border dispute that had been unresolved since the partition of the Indian subcontinent in 1947.

Before the agreement, the India-Bangladesh border had several inconsistencies, including 111 enclaves in the territory of each country, which were surrounded by the other country`s land. These enclaves were home to over 50,000 people, who were deprived of basic amenities and facilities due to their ambiguous legal status. Moreover, the dispute had led to a rise in illegal immigration, smuggling, and human trafficking, making the region a hotbed of criminal activities.

The India-Bangladesh land boundary agreement of 2015 addressed these issues by exchanging enclaves and demarcating the border more clearly. As per the agreement, India handed over 111 enclaves, spread over a total area of 17,160.63 acres, to Bangladesh, and in return, Bangladesh transferred 51 enclaves, covering 7,110.02 acres, to India. The agreement also provided for the exchange of prisoners and the establishment of a Joint Boundary Committee to maintain the border between the two countries.

The agreement has opened up new opportunities for both India and Bangladesh, especially in the areas of trade, connectivity, and regional cooperation. The improved connectivity between the two countries has facilitated the movement of people, goods, and services. Moreover, the resolution of the border issue has led to a significant reduction in illegal activities, making the region more secure and stable.

The India-Bangladesh land boundary agreement of 2015 has been recognized as a major achievement in bilateral relations between the two countries. The agreement has not only resolved a long-standing border dispute but has also facilitated the growth of regional cooperation. As such, it is essential for UPSC aspirants to be aware of its significance and the impact it has had on India-Bangladesh relations.